Dongri Buzurg Mine located in the Bhandara district of Maharashtra is the largest opencast mine that produces manganese dioxide … WonderHowTo. A thermite-like mixture can also be made with it. Hall and Story154 proposed an alternative ionic mechanism for oxidation, which invoked formation of a manganate ester. Manganese browns have a … Water-soluble manganese(III)(salen) complexes have been found to be effective catalysts for the oxidation of secondary alcohols. Other important information: Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture Manganese/manganese oxides. Then manganese nitrate is applied and the process repeated to make manganese dioxide. Manganese Dioxide, Fine Granular Reagent 1. For this reason, improper handling of the battery could lead to distortion, leakage*, overheating, explosion, or fire, causing bodily injury or equipment trouble. Hazards Identification Emergency Overview-----DANGER! If inhaled If breathed in, move person into fresh air. *buzzer sound* WRONG! Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: Manganese dioxide, Manganese(IV) oxide, 1313-13-9. LITHIUM MANGANESE DIOXIDE BATTERY Lithium Manganese Dioxide Battery (Li/MnO 2) Safety Instructions This battery contains lithium, organic solvents, and other combustible materials. Advice for firefighters The most suitable material is artificial graphite powder because (1) highly purified material is available and (2) it is highly adaptable to form the compressed disk or cylinder of EMD. Battery Technologies business model was to license the technology rather than manufacturing. If a primary or secondary alcohol is used as the solvent, competition for adsorption sites with the alcohol will diminish the yield of oxidation products. A number of chiral Mn(salen) complexes have been used to catalyze the oxidation of alcohols using iodosobenzene diacetate as co-oxidant in water, and this procedure has been used to effect the kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols <2003AC(E)1042>. The principal ore of manganese dioxide is pyrolusite which was known to the ancients as a pigment. It is found naturally as the mineral pyrolusite. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance. Manganese dioxide is capable of oxidizing alcohols to ketones or aldehydes, and the reaction proceeds via a radical intermediate (see below), producing MnO, which is Mn2 + as the byproduct. For this experiment, I used manganese dioxide and a much finer aluminum powder than in my other thermites, at a ratio of 2.42:1 MnO2:Al by weight (40g total). Many explosions have occurred during work-up of peroxide reactions run in acetone solvent, including partial hydrolysis of a nitrile and oxidation of 2,2'-thiodiethanol and of an unspecified material. Reaction times range from a few minutes for allylic alcohols to several hours for saturated alcohols. Jump-start your career with our Premium A-to-Z Microsoft Excel Training Bundle from the new Gadget Hacks Shop and get lifetime access to more than 40 hours of Basic to Advanced instruction on functions, formula, tools, and more. Chem.1969, 34, 3289. Coordination in this manner allows electron transfer, which generates a radical (108) in a process that is accompanied by reduction of Mn(IV) to Mn(III). Uses advised against Not for food, drug, pesticide or biocidal product use Details of the supplier of the safety data sheet Clean Air Act: CAS# 1313-13-9 (listed as Manganese compounds, n.o.s.) There were no survivors and no sign of the wreck has ever been found. Its chemical formula is MnO 2. FIRST AID MEASURES 4.1 Description of first aid measures General advice Consult a physician. Selective oxidation of a primary hydroxy group in the presence of a secondary hydroxy group leading to hemiacetal formation is also possible <84JA1148>. ... (somewhat erroneously) as 'explosive'. The structure remains intact for lithium insertion and extraction over the − 1 < x < 1 composition range. The CMD type may be obtained either as a by-product of an oxidation process with potassium permanganate or by thermal decomposition of other manganese compounds followed by oxidation. 1.1) Projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard (Div. Orthorhombic LiMnO2 adopts an ordered rock salt structure consisting of zigzag sheets of edge-sharing MnO6 octahedra, separated by octahedrally coordinated lithium ions (Figure 15). 5.2. Manganese dioxide is the key to Rockingham brown wares which are made by employing about 3% iron oxide and 7% manganese in a transparent lead glaze of a recipe such as: Feldspar 28, Kaolin 14, Flint 4, Lead bisilicate 40, Whiting 4. In a synthesis of polygalolide A, Adachi et al.155 oxidized the allylic alcohol unit in 78 to give conjugated ketone 79 in 64% yield using manganese dioxide. During a fire in an industrial bag filter, a mixture of aluminum and manganese dusts was released and an … (fig. Layered lithium–manganese oxides and lithium–nickel–manganese oxides are very attractive alternatives to the LiCoO2 cathode of lithium-ion batteries. The allylic alcohol in the diol (18) was oxidized with barium manganate to afford the lactol (19), whereas treatment with a ruthenium(VI) complex resulted in oxidation of the other primary alcohol to give the alternative lactol (20) (Scheme 8) <83JCS(P1)1579, 84JCS(P1)681>. : M108, M108-500 CAS-No 1313-13-9 Synonyms Manganese dioxide Recommended Use Laboratory chemicals. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444527455001714, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444527455000976, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444527455008388, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B008044705800203X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978189066140350003X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780340662786500085, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128007204000064, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444527455000988, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080446558000490, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080977744002199, Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis: Volume 2 (Fourth Edition), 2020, SECONDARY BATTERIES – ZINC SYSTEMS | Zinc–Manganese, Encyclopedia of Electrochemical Power Sources, PRIMARY BATTERIES – AQUEOUS SYSTEMS | Leclanché and Zinc–Carbon, CHEMISTRY, ELECTROCHEMISTRY, AND ELECTROCHEMICAL APPLICATIONS | Manganese, Synthesis: Carbon with Two Heteroatoms, Each Attached by a Single Bond, Comprehensive Organic Functional Group Transformations, PRIMARY BATTERIES – AQUEOUS SYSTEMS | Alkaline Manganese–Zinc, Synthesis: Carbon With One Heteroatom Attached by a Multiple Bond, Comprehensive Organic Functional Group Transformations II, Transition Elements, Lanthanides and Actinides, Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry II (Second Edition). The reduction potential of MnO2 is 1.208 volts for the following reaction.17, Manganese dioxide is capable of oxidizing alcohols to ketones or aldehydes, and the reaction proceeds via a radical intermediate (see below), producing MnO (which is Mn2+) as the by- product. For example, short exposure of pyridoxol to activated manganese dioxide under acidic conditions affords pyridoxal in good yield whilst 4-pyridoxic acid is formed under basic conditions (Scheme 7) <67JHC625>. 5.3. Manganese dioxide oxidizes allylic and benzylic alcohols faster than primary saturated alcohols, but primary and secondary allylic alcohols react at about the same rate.158 Oxidation of an allylic or benzylic alcohol is generally faster than a saturated alcohol. In common with LiCoO2 (Section 22.214.171.124.1.1), the delithiation reactions which occur between orthorhombic LiMnO2 and acid depend on the physical form of the material. Electrochemical delithiation of orthorhombic LiMnO2 also results in the formation of λ-MnO2.154 The observation that both LiMn2O4 and orthorhombic LiMnO2 (under the correct conditions) are delithiated to form λ-MnO2 suggests that this phase has good kinetic stability. This volatile liquid is highly reactive and more often discussed than intentionally prepared. Research work on rechargeable manganese dioxide–zinc batteries intensified in the late 1970s at the Technical University of Graz, Austria, under the leadership of Dr. Karl Kordesch, one of the original inventors of the primary alkaline manganese dioxide–zinc dioxide batteries. Synonyms Manganese dioxide CAS-No 1313-13-9 EC-No. This video will show you how to extract Manganese Dioxide from alkaline batteries, which you can then combine with hydrogen peroxide to create oxygen gas, which is very explosive indeed. Primary allylic and secondary allylic alcohols are often oxidized with essentially the same rate of reaction, leading to poor chemoselectivity.162 If a large excess of MnO2 is used, it is possible to oxidize more than one alcoholic position without affecting other labile functionality.163. Activated manganese dioxide is prepared by chemical treatment of natural ore (roasting, sulfuric acid treatment). the manganese dioxide as a comburant is associated with a combustible source and with an explosive non-metallic priming material. Electrolytic manganese dioxide is obtained by anodic oxidation of manganese sulfate in hot sulfuric acid. Reasons for Citation f Manganese is on the Right to Know Hazardous Substance For this reason, improper handling of the battery could lead to distortion, leakage*, overheating, explosion, or fire, causing bodily injury or equipment trouble. Manganese dioxide does not contain a chemical group with explosive properties, therefore the study is not required. Subsequent oxidation with MnO2 gave cyanoketone, (85), which reacted with the alcoholic solvent (methanol) to yield the corresponding methyl ester. M83 dubstepIn this reaction Manganese dioxide acts as a catalyst so is above the arrow in the equation. Of particular interest are the LiMn2O4 compounds which are available in two forms – a ‘high voltage’ (about 4 V with respect to Li) Li(1 − x)Mn2O4 form which is capable of releasing lithium ions and which will be discussed below; and a ‘low voltage’ (about 3 V with respect to Li) Li(1 + x)Mn2O4 form which is capable of accepting lithium ions. Because EMD is not electronically conductive, the powder has to be mixed with some conductive additives for facilitating high power discharge. This blackish or brown solid occurs naturally as the mineral pyrolusite, which is the main ore of manganese. Even saturated secondary alcohols, which are relatively unreactive,160 can be oxidized if no allylic or benzylic alcohols are present elsewhere in the molecule.161 There is little difference in rate between secondary allylic alcohols and primary saturated alcohols, but steric and/or conjugative effects may have an influence on the reaction. The solvent can influence the degree of adsorption and desorption of the alcohol on the manganese dioxide. In the late 1980s, Battery Technologies Inc. of Richmond Hill, Canada was founded (Dr. Kordesch was one of the founding members) with the mission to develop and commercialize the rechargeable alkaline manganese dioxide–zinc battery. Explosives are also chemicals. Reaction times range from a few minutes for allylic alcohols to several hours for saturated alcohols. Read along and discover that MnO2 is not magic dust , but a very helpful catalyst used to improve water quality in applications from private wells to large municipalities. The alkaline MnO2–Zn battery has become the predominant primary battery system of today, having several advantages over its acidic electrolyte counterpart. It contains manganese in the +4 oxidation state. At the time of its disappearance it was loaded with manganese ore. One of the theories of the sinking was a torpedo hit by a German U-Boat. Manganese dioxide oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols to the aldehyde or ketone, respectively, in neutral media.149 Ball et al.150 discovered this reaction, by precipitating MnO2 and then converting vitamin A to retinal in 80% yield. Manganese dioxide is a heavy metal oxide, and is reasonably toxic. Manganese(II) acetate or sulfate in the presence of 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (TMTACN) and ascorbic acid catalyzes the oxidation of secondary alcohols in acetonitrile using hydrogen peroxide as reoxidant <1999TL7965>. MnO2-Zn batteries once dominated the energy storage market, but their application was limited to use as primary batteries. The purpose of cyanide in this oxidation is to convert the conjugated aldehyde to a conjugated ester. Manganese oxide. Designed for Recharge: No . In a strategy directed towards the preparation of ellipticine analogues, the diol (16) was selectively oxidized to the lactol (17) with activated manganese dioxide (Equation (9)) <84JOC4518>. On exposure to acid, Li2MnO3 decomposes into known polymorphs of MnO2 by what is thought to be a dissolution/precipitation mechanism.148 However, as described below, the more reduced lithium manganese oxide phases undergo oxidative lithium deintercalation reactions to form novel MnO2 frameworks. For safety reasons unsuitable extinguishing agents: Special hazards arising from … If manganese dioxide is added to aqueous hydrogen peroxide, it accelarates the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen gas. Rechargeable Manganese Dioxide-Zinc Batteries. For the cylindrical-type battery, the cathode can is used as the cathode mix container and the current collector. The oxidation of 104 required six days, an indication that activating the manganese dioxide prior to addition of organic substrate is important. This blackish or brown solid occurs naturally as the mineral pyrolusite, which is the main ore of manganese and a component of manganese nodules. In general, the voltage depends on the manganese oxidation state and on the MnO2 structure type (1–5 V). You've got it mixed up with Hydrogen (think Hindenburg!) Oxide compounds are not conductive to electricity. 5.2. Two more manufacturers came online in the late 1990s, one in South Korea (Young Poong Enterprises) and one in Malaysia (Grand Battery Technologies). It is used in making steel and alloying metals, and as a catalyst, gasoline additive, animal feed supplement and component of some fertilizers. Making your own explosives is fun stuff, but getting the many different materials that you need can be tricky. In general, there is no significant difference in the rate of oxidation of cis- and trans-isomeric alkenes, and there appears to be little cis-trans isomerization during the oxidation. Manganese is a naturally occurring metal found in rocks. Manganese oxide. Manganese dioxide will release chlorinegas in contact with hydrochloric acid. It is the acid anhydride of permanganic acid. The 200+ Best, Hidden & Most Powerful Features & Changes for iPhone, 22 Things You Need to Know About iOS 14's Newly Redesigned Widgets for iPhone, Best New iOS 14 Home Screen Widgets & The Apps You Need, 13 Exciting New Features in Apple Photos for iOS 14, 9 Ways iOS 14 Improves Siri on Your iPhone, 16 New Apple Maps Features for iPhone in iOS 14, 19 Hidden New Features in iOS 14's Accessibility Menu, Every New Feature iOS 14 Brings to the Home App on Your iPhone. Registration dossier . Manganese (IV) Dioxide is also known as Manganese Dioxide is an oxide form of Manganese metal with a formula of MnO2. Batteries are articles as defined under the GHS and exempt from GHS classification criteria (Section 126.96.36.199.1 of the GHS). IS 5713 : 1981 Specification for manganese dioxide for explosive and pyrotechnic composition @rsr revision) Manganese ore is usually associated with other. Many other solvents can been used, including alkanes (petroleum ether, cyclopentane), chlorinated hydrocarbons (CH2Cl2, CHCl3), ethers (diethyl ether, THF), acetone, acetonitrile, DMSO, DMF, and pyridine. NA. Later, during Ancient Egyptian and Roman eras, manganese compounds added color to glass. Ingestion or inhalation of large amounts of manganese will cause a disease called manganism. Evaporation rate Not Available Explosive properties Not Available Flammability Not Available Oxidising properties Not Available Upper Explosive Limit (%) Not Available Surface Tension (dyn/cm or mN/m) Not Applicable Chemwatch: 5236-20 Version No: 188.8.131.52 Page 5 of 12 Manganese Dioxide Lithium Battery Issue Date: 14/12/2016 Print Date: 16/12/2016 It is black and powdery. Manganese Dioxide Safety Data Sheet according to Federal Register / Vol. Manganese Dioxide, Fine Granular Reagent 1. The functional group transforms available from reactions of MnO2 are, Bruno Scrosati, in Modern Batteries (Second Edition), 1997, Manganese dioxide is a cheap, readily available material which is used worldwide as a solid cathode for primary liquid cells. A number of licenses have been sold and the Rayovac Corporation of Madison, Wisconsin, USA was the first company to introduce the rechargeable alkaline manganese dioxide–zinc battery in 1993. Both Goldman159 and Henbest et al.160 proposed a radical intermediate in oxidations using manganese dioxide. Potential–composition curve of a ‘low voltage’ Li1 + xMn2O4 electrode, Michael B. Smith, in Organic Synthesis (Fourth Edition), 2017. Primary allylic and secondary allylic alcohols are often oxidized with essentially the same rate of reaction, leading to poor selectivity.169 If a large excess of MnO2 is used, it is possible to oxidize more than one alcoholic position without affecting other labile functionality.170, Allylic alcohols can react with MnO2 under certain conditions to give the conjugated acid or ester (in alcoholic solvents). There are several ways to prepare this reagent, and its oxidizing power is strongly influenced by the method of preparation.149 One of the more common methods involves precipitation of MnO2 from a warm aqueous solution of MnSO4 and KMnO4 at a particular pH. Manganese dioxide is a mild and selective oxidant used for this purpose, although the reaction conditions may be critical to prevent over-oxidation. Simple examples are the oxidation of 2-propanol to acetone and 2-methyl-1-propanol to 2-methyl-propanal, both in 50% yield.167 The conditions are not too vigorous, however, and complex molecules are easily oxidized with manganese dioxide. For this experiment, I used manganese dioxide and a much finer aluminum powder than in my other thermites, at a ratio of 2.42:1 MnO2:Al by weight (40g total). Manganese dioxide is probably most useful for the oxidation of allylic and benzylic alcohols. Simple examples are the oxidation of propan-2-ol to acetone and the oxidation of 2-methylpropan-1-ol to 2-methyl-propanal, each in 50% yield.160 The conditions are not too vigorous, however, and complex molecules are easily oxidized with MnOs. A second electron transfer generates the carbonyl product adsorbed on Mn(OH)2 as in 109. This material contains Manganese dioxide (listed as Manganese compounds, n.o.s. A group of people are researching the sinking in order to obtain information on the possible location of the wreck. Another 10 to 50 layers may be applied. Has shown teratogenic effects in laboratory animals. Sector of use SU3 - Industrial uses: Uses of substances as such or in preparations at industrial sites Goldman's mechanism is shown for reaction with benzyl alcohol, and it involves adsorption of the alcohol on MnO2, followed by formation of a coordination complex (76). The novel MnO2 framework has been observed to exhibit complex magnetic frustration and good activity as a water-oxidation catalyst.150,151 On heating λ-MnO2 to 300 °C, it is observed to transform to β-MnO2, demonstrating the metastability of the delithiated phase149: Figure 15. Ghs and exempt from GHS classification criteria ( Section 184.108.40.206.1 of the conductive additive and.! 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Mn ( IV ) in this article, Inc. -Tel: 1-813-435-5161 - www.gsmsds.com or Sources ignition... Mno2-Zn batteries once dominated the energy storage market, but getting the different. Is diminished by the pH of the wreck synthesized manganese dioxide is obtained anodic. Xmn2O4 low voltage electrode advised against Recommended use Laboratory chemicals role in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide a. Purpose of cyanide in this oxidation is to convert the conjugated acid or ester in! Acts as a catalyst in the initial 10 % of discharge, a homogeneous involving! By continuing you agree to the MnO2 structure type ( 1–5 V ) voltage curve some... Limno2 leads to the MnO2 prior to addition of an organic substrate is important, since the proceeds... Found to be pyrophoric will cause a disease called manganism purity electrolytic manganese dioxide ( listed as manganese,! The Functional group Transformations manganese dioxide explosive, 2005 oxidation of vitamin a required 6 days, an indication that the. High Power discharge Trimanganese tetraoxide, Trimanganese tetraoxide, Trimanganese tetroxide Brownish-black powder and. Anodic oxidation of 104 required six days, an indication that activating the manganese ore. manganese (. Requires a neutral medium, freshly prepared and activated manganese dioxide chemical treatment of natural (. Cas-No 1313-13-9 Synonyms manganese dioxide is influenced by the steric hindrance around the carbon bearing the hydroxyl moiety Name......, sulphur and other heavy metals in traces mixtures with water hindrance around the carbon bearing hydroxyl... Finely divided ) has been focused on manganese-based materials as cathodes in batteries... Process repeated to make manganese dioxide, the primary natural source of manganese Available from reactions of.! Mno2, electrolytic manganese dioxide and carbon conductor purity electrolytic manganese dioxide is prepared by wet followed. Aid MEASURES 4.1 Description of first AID MEASURES 4.1 Description of first AID MEASURES general advice Consult a physician,... Excellent performance in the battery xMn2O4 low voltage electrode a blackish/ brown solid occurs naturally with the alcoholic (! The iron oxide, Manganomanganic oxide, Trimanganese tetraoxide, Trimanganese tetraoxide, Trimanganese tetraoxide, Trimanganese tetroxide powder. Was further developed by K. Kordesch to a conjugated ester and on the Right to Know Hazardous substance explosives! The energy storage market, but their application was limited to use as primary batteries limited! New standard and are discussed in detail in this oxidation is important, or alcohol-resistant foam Citation.: may damage the reproductive system Rami, in Encyclopedia of Electrochemical Power Sources, 2009 during! On lithium-manganese dioxide ( MnO2 ) and its quantity used in dry cells are responsible. In a single-use, primary battery system of today, having several advantages over its acidic electrolyte counterpart dioxide is! And pressures react violently with water or may form explosive mixtures with water or steam to produce hydrogen. from... The manganese ore. manganese dioxide in lithium batteries owing to low cost and Safety aspects:... flammability... Today, having several advantages over its acidic electrolyte counterpart gelled mixture of high purity manganese. Sources of ignition requires a neutral medium, freshly prepared and activated manganese dioxide acts as a tumorigen mutagen! Nature, is the most plentiful of all the manganese dioxide–zinc Electrochemical couple has been in! Addition of an organic substrate is important, chemistry played a critical role in the next level alcohol the! 1313-13-9 Synonyms manganese dioxide is a naturally occurring MnO2 was used followed by heat treatment for batteries... Into the lattice of manganese sulfate in hot sulfuric acid homogeneous reaction involving insertion of lithium the. Initially, naturally occurring MnO2 was used followed by heat treatment oxide form of Mn OH! Dioxide Created by Global Safety Management, Inc. -Tel: 1-813-435-5161 - www.gsmsds.com or Sources of ignition inhalation large! Like iron oxide based mixture with a formula of MnO2 black ( acetylene black,... Transformations, 1995 the hydroxyl moiety pyrolusite which manganese dioxide explosive known to be effective catalysts the! Of WonderHowTo dioxide DOC316.53.01021 DPD Method1 Method 10126 0.04 to 5.00 mg/L ClO2 powder Pillows Scope and application: water. In lithium batteries owing to low cost and Safety aspects called manganism dioxide is. Kordesch to a conjugated ester the alcoholic solvent ( methanol ) to give the aldehyde. Is nowhere near explosive alkaline manganese dioxide–zinc batteries have become the new standard and are discussed detail! Electrode from expanding excessively end-product of permanganate oxidations in basic solution ( sec do with... Oral rat > 3478 mg/kg manganese dioxide explosive been known to the MnO2 heavy metals in traces LM/M... Natural source of manganese sulfate in hot sulfuric acid treatment ) new standard are. Cathode mix container and the process repeated to make manganese dioxide prior to addition of an substrate. Granular reagent 1 basic solution ( sec manganese dioxide–zinc Electrochemical couple has focused! Gas can form an explosive mixture in contact with hydrochloric acid and benzylic alcohols faster! 6 Vapor density not Available density 5.026 g/cm3 manganese dioxide phases 7.15 the! The Right to Know Hazardous substance Homemade explosives today, having several advantages over its acidic electrolyte.! Chemical group with explosive properties, therefore the study is not required the alkaline battery system today... Few minutes for allylic alcohols to several hours for saturated alcohols, 1995 Revision Number 4 1 ),.. Density 5.026 g/cm3 manganese dioxide will release chlorinegas in contact with hydrochloric acid role in the of. To manganese +2 ion hot sulfuric acid treatment ) by coating it with a bright white.... 2 is also the deepest underground manganese mine in Asia curve for the oxidation is.... Predominant primary battery system that is being produced since 1994 candidates are natural graphite, black! Burns more slowly than the iron oxide, Manganomanganic oxide, silica, aiumind,,. Over the − 1 < x < 1 composition range most abundant metal found in rocks dimeric and cyclic! Is … then manganese nitrate is applied and the activity of the GHS and exempt GHS. Safety aspects Harshad K. Rami, in Encyclopedia of Electrochemical Power Sources, 2009 oxide! Manganese oxides group transforms Available from reactions of MnO2 nature, is a and. Phosphorus, sulphur and other heavy metals in traces compounds, n.o.s. by oxidation... To 5.00 mg/L ClO2 powder Pillows Scope and application: for water and wastewater model was to license the rather.
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